Monday, December 27, 2010

Persecution of Hindus (4/5)

4. 2. 8. Trinidad & Tobago

During the initial decades of Indian indenture, Indian cultural forms were met with either contempt or indifference by the Christian majority. [132] Hindus have made many contributions to Trinidad history and culture even though the state historically regarded Hindus as second class citizens. Hindus in Trinidad struggled over the granting of adult franchise, the Hindu marriage bill, the divorce bill, cremation ordinance, and others. [132] After Trinidad's independence from colonial rule, Hindus were marginalized by the African based People's National Movement. The opposing party, the People's Democratic party, was portrayed as a "Hindu group", and Hindus were castigated as a "recalcitrant and hostile minority". [132] The displacement of PNM from power in 1985 would improve the situation.
Intensified protests over the course of the 1980s led to an improvement in the state's attitudes towards Hindus. [132] The divergence of some of the fundamental aspects of local Hindu culture, the segregation of the Hindu community from Trinidad, and the disinclination to risk erasing the more fundamental aspects of what had been constructed as "Trinidad Hinduism" in which the identity of the group had been rooted, would often generate dissension when certain dimensions of Hindu culture came into contact with the State. While the incongruences continue to generate debate, and often conflict, it is now tempered with growing awareness and consideration on the part of the state to the Hindu minority. [132] Hindus have been also been subjected to persistent proselytization by Christian missionaries. [133] Specifically the evangelical and Pentecostal Christians. Such activities reflect racial tensions that at times arise between the Christianized Afro-Trinidadian and Hindu Indo-Trinidadian communities. [133]

4. 2. 9. United States of America

Hindu immigrants, constitute approximately 0.5% of the total population. They are also the second most affluent religious group after the Jews. Hindus in USA enjoy both de jure and de facto legal equality. However, it is widely acknowledged that the Hindu community in USA became more politically active[citation needed] after a series of attacks by a street gang called the "Dotbusters" in the New Jersey area in the year 1987. [134] The lackadaisical attitude of the Police, prompted the South Asian community to arrange small groups all across the state to fight back against the street gang. The perpetrators have been put to trial.

5. See also

Other religions:

6. Notes

  1. P. 88 The Rosary and the Lamp By Baburao Patel
  2. The Castes and Tribes of H.E.H. the Nizam's Dominions
  3. Caste in Muslim Society by Yoginder Sikand
  4. Aggarwal, Patrap (1978). Caste and Social Stratification Among Muslims in India. Manohar.
  5. Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg: The Chachnamah, An Ancient History of Sind, Giving the Hindu period down to the Arab Conquest. [1]
  6. Wink, Andre, "Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World", Brill Academic Publishers, August 1, 2002, ISBN 0-391-04173-8 pg. 204
  7. Trifkovic, Serge (September 11, 2002). The Sword of the Prophet: History, Theology, Impact on the World. Regina Orthodox Press.
  8. Trifkovic, Serge. "Islam’s Other Victims: India". Retrieved 2006-08-26.
  9. Sindhi Culture by U.T. Thakkur, Univ. of Bombay Publications, 1959
  10. J E Lohuizen-de Leeuw, South Asian Archaeology 1975, pg 152-153, January 1, 1979, Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN 90-04-05996-2
  11. Saunders, Kenneth. A Pageant of India. H. Milford, Oxford University Press pg. 162.
  12. Karan, Pradyumna. The Non-Western World:Environment, Development and Human Rights. Routledge pg. 344.
  13. Barron, Milton (1967). Minorities in a Changing World. Knopf p54.
  14. ^ P. M. (Peter Malcolm) Holt, Bernard Lewis, The Cambridge History of Islam, Cambridge University Press, April 21, 1977, ISBN 0-521-29137-2 pg 3-4.
  15. Kakar, Sudhir. The Colors of Violence: Cultural Identities, Religion, and Conflict. University of Chicago Press P 50.
  17. Rashid, A. (1969). Society and Culture in Medieval India, 1206-1556 A.D. (Excerpt from Taj-ul-Maasir). Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay.
  18. B.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006
  19. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, "Timur", 6th ed., Columbia University Press: "... Timur (timoor') or Tamerlane (tăm'urlān), c.1336-1405, Mongol conqueror, b. Kesh, near Samarkand. ...", (LINK)
  20. "Timur", in Encyclopaedia Britannica: "... [Timur] was a member of the Turkic Barlas clan of Mongols..."
  21. "Baber", in Encyclopaedia Britannica: "... Baber first tried to recover Samarkand, the former capital of the empire founded by his Mongol ancestor Timur Lenk ..."
  22. ^ Volume III: To the Year A.D. 1398, Chapter: XVIII. Malfúzát-i Tímúrí, or Túzak-i Tímúrí: The Autobiography of Tímúr. Page: 389 (please press next and read all pages in the online copy) (1. Online copy, 2. Online copy) from: Elliot, Sir H. M., Edited by Dowson, John. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; published by London Trubner Company 1867-1877. (Online Copy: The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; by Sir H. M. Elliot; Edited by John Dowson; London Trubner Company 1867-1877 - This online Copy has been posted by: The Packard Humanities Institute; Persian Texts in Translation; Also find other historical books: Author List and Title List)
  23. Taimur Lane. Turk-i-Taimuri.
  24. Maulana Hakim Saiyid Abdul Hai "Hindustan Islami Ahad Mein" (Hindustan under Islamic rule), Eng Trans by Maulana Abdul Hasan Nadwi
  25. Index_1200-1299,
  26. Elliot, Henry Miers (1953). The History of India: as told by its own historians; the Muhammadan period (Excerpt from Jamiu'l-Hikayat). University of Michigan.
  27. ^ Banerjee, Jamini (1967). History of Firuz Shah Tughluq. Munshiram Manoharlal.
  28. ^ The South Asian Aurangzeb profile
  29. ^ Rajiv Varma Destruction of Hindu Temples by Aurangzeb
  30. Kate Brittlebank Tipu Sultan’s Search for Legitimacy: Islam and Kingship in a Hindu domain (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 1997
  31. Bowring, Lewin (1893). Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan and the struggle with the Musalman powers of the south (1974 ed.). Delhi: ADABIYAT-I DELLI.
  32. Valath, V. V. K. (1981) (in Malayalam). Keralathile Sthacharithrangal - Thrissur Jilla. Kerala Sahithya Academy. pp. 74-79.
  33. Kareem, C.K (1973) [1973]. Kerala Under Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan P187. Kerala History Association : distributors, Paico Pub. House. p. 322.
  34. Rao, Hayavadana C.. History of Mysore 1399-1799: Incorporating the latest Epigraphical, Literary and Historical Researches Vol. 3 pgs 1047-53. Bangalore Government Press.
  35. Brittlebank Tipu Sultan pp1-3; Phillip B. Wagoner “Tipu Sultan's Search for Legitimacy: Islam and Kingship in a Hindu Domain by Kate Brittlebank (Review)” The Journal of Asian Studies Vol. 58, No. 2 (May, 1999) pp. 541-543
  36. Brittlebank Tipu Sultan’s Search For legitimacy p107
  37. Mohibbul Hasan The History of Tipu Sultan (Delhi) 1971 pp362-3
  38. Mohibbul Hasan The History of Tipu Sultan (Delhi) 1971 pp 359
  39. B.A. Saletare "Tipu Sultan as Defender of the Hindu Dharma" in Habib (Ed.) Confronting Colonialism, pp. 116-8
  40. Ali, Sheikh. "Persian script of Tipu Sultan on the gateway to Krishnaraja Sagar Dam (KRS)". Biography of Tipu Sultan. Cal-Info. Retrieved 2006-10-17
  41. ^ Firishta, Muhammad Qãsim Hindû Shãh; John Briggs (translator) (1829- 1981 Reprint). Tãrîkh-i-Firishta (History of the Rise of the Mahomedan Power in India). New Delhi.
  42. KASHMIR SENTINEL August 16-September 15, 2000-Terrorists massacre Amarnath yatris
  44. Stokes, Eric (1973). The First Century of British Colonial Rule in India: Social Revolution or Social Stagnation?” Past and Present.
  45. Telangana Liberation - A People's Struggle
  46. [2]
  47. Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: S-Z By James Minahan
  48. HYDERABAD: The Holdout TIME Magazine, Monday, Aug. 30, 1948
  49. "Structural asymmetric secularism".
  50. ^ "National Minority Status For Jain Community in India".
  51. ^ "Supreme Court's judgement".
  52. ^ "University Today".
  53. "Places of worship attacked".
  54. "A Statue story from south".
  55. "Anti-Hindu rhetoric nothing new for atheist DMK chief".
  56. National Song, National Anthem and more - II News Today - January 19, 2010
  57. "Ramakrishna Mission Controversies".
  58. Spiritual seeker jailed for two years in India The Malaysia Star - August 31, 2009
  59. "Atrocities on Kashmiri Hindus by Pakistan-Trained Terrorists". Retrieved 2006-08-26.
  60. Gill, Kanwar Pal Singh. "The Kashmiri Pandits: An Ethnic Cleansing the World Forgot". South Asian Terrorism Portal. Retrieved 2006-08-26.
  61. Tripura Society's Website, Independent, and Authentic Information & Views About Tripura
  62. "Constitution of National Liberation Front Of Tripura". South Asia Terrorism Portal.
  63. "National Liberation Front of Tripura, India". South Asia Terrorism Portal.
  64. Bhaumik, Subhir (April 18, 2000). "'Church backing Tripura rebels'". BBC News. Retrieved 2006-08-26.
  65. Christianity threat looms over Bhuvan Pahar Assam Times - June 23, 2009
  66. Gunment Slaughter 38 on Bus in India in Bloodiest Attack of Sikh Campaign. July 7, 1987. Page A03. The Philadelphia Inquirer.
  67. Census of India, 2001 - Kerala Hindus (56%); see States of India by percentage of Hindus
  68. Church, State concerned about ´Love Jihad´
  72. Mujtaba, Syed Ali (2005). Soundings on South Asia. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 100. ISBN 9781932705409.
  73. Gupta, Jyoti Bhushan Das (2007). Science, technology, imperialism, and war - History of science, philosophy, and culture in Indian civilization. Volume XV. Science, technology, and philosophy ; pt. 1. Pearson Education India. p. 733. ISBN 9788131708514.
  74. "Discrimination against Bangladeshi Hindus: Refugees International". August 9, 2003. Retrieved 2006-08-26.
  75. ^ Bangladesh: The Next Afghanistan? by Hiranmay Karlekar. New Delhi: Sage, January 2006. ISBN 0-7619-3401-4
  76. "The 'Talibanization' of Bangladesh". The Nation. May 18, 2002. Retrieved 2007-01-28.
  77. "The Talibanization of Bangladesh". August 9, 2003. Archived from the original on 2006-11-20. Retrieved 2007-01-28.
  78. U.S. Department of State: 2006 Census Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs
  79. "Hindu temples". Archived from the original on 2006-07-01. Retrieved 2006-08-26.
  80. Frank Pallone (2004-05-17). Persecution Of Hindus In Bangladesh (article mirrored from the US Library of Congress). Retrieved 2006-08-26.
  81. "Congressman Pallone Condemns Persecution of Hindus in Bangladesh Following Meetings with Hindu American Foundation". Hindu American Foundation. 2004-05-20. Retrieved 2006-08-26.[dead link]
  82. ^ Bangladesh slammed for persecution of Hindus,
  84. Census of Pakistan, 1951
  85. Hindu masjids by Prafull Goradia, 2002 "In 1951, Muslims were 77 percent and Hindus were 22 percent."
  86. Census of Pakistan, 1998
  87. Reddy, B. Murlidhar. "Hindus in Pakistan allege humiliation". The Hindu. Retrieved 2006-08-26.
  88. Editorial The Jamaat Talks Backin The Bangladesh Observer December 30, 2005
  89. Dr. N. Rabbee Remembering a Martyr Star weekend Magazine, The Daily Star (Bangladesh) December 16, 2005
  90. Pakistan: The Ravaging of Golden Bengal,Time Magazine
  91. Anwar, Syed. "State of minorities". Retrieved 2006-08-18.
  92. 25 Hindu girls abducted every month, claims HRCP official The News, Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  93. "Opp MNAs fight in PM’s presence". Retrieved 2006-08-23.
  94. ^ US Department of State International Religious Freedom Report 2006
  95. Another temple is no more,Dawn
  96. Hindu temple in Lahore demolished,
  97. Only Hindu Temple in Lahore demolished,Times of India
  98. India protests demolition of Hindu temple in Pak,Times of India
  99. Order for temple's reconstruction sought,Gulf News
  100. "Hindus feel the heat in Pakistan". BBC News. March 2, 2007. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  105. Goodbye To The Hindu Ghettos Tehelka - October 17, 2009 issue
  106. US Lawmakers Condemn Taliban Treatment Of Hindus, T.C. Malhotra
  107. US lawmakers say: We are Hindus Aziz Haniffa
  108. Taliban to mark Afghan Hindus,CNN
  109. India deplores Taleban decree against Hindus
  110. Taliban: Hindus Must Wear Identity Labels,People's Daily
  111. ^ US lawmakers say: We are Hindus,
  112. ^ US Lawmakers Condemn Taliban Treatment Of Hindus,
  113. Immigrant Hinduism in Germany: Tamils from Sri Lanka and Their Temples,
  114. UNHCR | Refworld | Chronology for Lhotshampas in Bhutan
  115. NEPAL-BHUTAN: Bhutan questions identity of 107,000 refugees in Nepal
  116. Bhaumik, Subir (November 7, 2007). "Bhutan refugees are 'intimidated'". BBC News. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
  117. In Rome, Durga is not welcome Daily Pioneer - September 27, 2009
  118. "KAZAKHSTAN: State bulldozes Hare Krishna commune, bids to chair OSCE". Forum 18 News Service. Retrieved 2007-01-24.
  119. "U.S. Embassy urges Kazakh authorities to end harassment of Hare Krishna". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 2007-01-24.
  120. Temple row - a dab of sensibility please,
  121. Muslims Destroy Century-Old Hindu Temple,
  122. Pressure on multi-faith Malaysia,BBC
  123. ^ Hindu group protests 'temple cleansing' in Malaysia,Financial Express
  124. Malaysia ethnic Indians in uphill fight on religion Reuters India - November 8, 2007
  125. Malaysia Muslims protest proposed Hindu temple Associated Press - August 28, 2009
  126. Malaysia strips Hindus of rights Daily Pioneer - January 19, 2010
  127. Marshall, Paul. Saudi Arabia's Religious Police Crack Down. Freedom House
  128. ^ Jonathan Fraenkel, Stewart Firth (2007). From Election to Coup in Fiji: The 2006 Campaign and Its Aftermath. ANU E Press. p. 306.
  129. Hindus in South Asia and the Diaspora: A Survey of Human Rights 2005
  130. Roots of Land and Church: the Christian State Debate in Fiji - International journal for the Study of the Christian Church
  131. Hindus in South Asia and the Diaspora: A Survey of Human Rights 2005
  132. ^ Singh, Sherry-Ann, Hinduism and the State in Trinidad,Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, Volume 6, Number 3, September 2005, pp. 353-365(13)
  133. ^ International Religious Freedom Report 2002: Trinidad and Tobago
  134. In Jersey City, Indians Protest Violence.

No comments:

Post a Comment